Detailed Outcomes


The Information System (IS) is structured of \"fact sheets (FS)” which includes edited information of all outputs for the interested end users. The factsheets are aiming at specific recipients. Via boxes on the webpage IS section \\\"policy recommendations\\\" in short as well as specific information for practicioners (extension workers and their coordinators) will be accessable directly. The factsheet itself will additionally serve as gateway to access links toward the original documents (reports, papers, etc.). This will enable researchers and other to get most crompehensive information generated by Better-iS.



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FS01_Tanzania - Country overview

The current land use, geography of Tanzania as well as the climate conditions are given and the agro-ecological zones are described to provide a brief overview of overall general condition to analyse biofuel potential in Tanzania.

FS02_Competing uses of biomass

The Wuppertal Institute conducted an analysis of the the status quo and trends of biomass production and consumption patterns in Tanzania at national and regional level with special emphasis on the case-study regions. Biofuel value chains were examined with respect to its impact on the biomass use as a whole. The research identified competing uses of biomass, which is an important issue for developing integrated strategies.

FS03_Bioenergy and Tanzania\'s agricultural landscape: Interaction of global drivers and national policies

Tanzania\'s biofuel feedstock production potential is closely linked to its food-producing potential, and is greatest for sugarcane in the southern region, whereas coastal regions have strong potential for cassava. Pro-environmental lobal energy policies which emphasize low-carbon targets are favourable for Tanzania through lowering maize prices and boosting ethanol and sugar export potential


National policy advice

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FS04_Integrated strategies towards sustainable biomass use and use of biofuel value chain potential

There are different measures concerning sustainable use of woody and agricultural biomass in Tanzania discussed and partly implemented, they include the following important issues: Improving yields in agriculture and in fuel/energy availability and efficiency, sustainable forest management and decreasing of illegal logging, and informed biofuel sector support.

FS05_Biomass cascading – an option towards sustainable biomass use in Tanzania?

The Wuppertal Institute conducted an analysis of the the status quo and trends of biomass production and consumption patterns in Tanzania at national and regional level with special emphasis on the case-study regions. There was identified biomass cascading as one option to increase the resource efficiency and to mitigate the competition between material and energetic use and its use for feed and food.

FS06_Biofuel potential from agricultural biomass in Tanzania

Biofuels have a theoretical potential in Tanzania. There is limited land suitability for sugar cane and oil palm. Jatropha has potential for low cost biodiesel production. Cassava has been analysed as the most promising pro-poor biofuel development option under smallholder conditions. There is energy potential of agricultural residues from commercial crop sector.

FS07_Status quo and trend of agricultural biomass use in Tanzania

Factsheet „Status quo and trend of agricultural biomass use in Tanzania“ Tanzania is an agriculture-dependent developing country with poverty that is sensitive to food productivity. To satisfy the growing food demand low productivity and land pressure is an issue. The potential for increasing yields has to be discussed in the light of current dominant smallholder farming in Tanzania. Factsheet „Status quo of woody biomass use in Tanzania“ Woody biomass is one of the most important energy sources in Tanzania, but the wood production and consumption patterns are currently unsustainable: More than 90% of roundwood removal is directly used as wood fuel. The increasing demand of wood fuels and agricultural products due to population growth leads to deforestation, degradation, CO2-emissions, and expansion of agricultural land.

Agroforestry & wood biomass (use)

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FS08_Status quo of woody biomass use in Tanzania

Woody biomass is one of the most important energy sources in Tanzania, but the wood production and consumption patterns are currently unsustainable: More than 90% of roundwood removal is directly used as wood fuel. The increasing demand of wood fuels and agricultural products due to population growth leads to deforestation, degradation, CO2-emissions, and expansion of agricultural land.

FS09_Analysis of energy usage, pressure on land and agroforestry to contribute to the development of a sustainability impact assessment of bioenergy production in rural Tanzania.

This Factsheet presents the results of the analysis of all of the Better-iS surveys focussing on three issues: (i) energy, (ii) pressure on land and (iii) agroforestry. Results were derived in the four case-study villages (Laela, Mpanda, Kigoma and Tandai) and are compared to contribute to the development of a monitoring system to access the sustainability of energy usage as well as a potentially bioenergy production through small-scale farmers. Results are highlighting the the possibility to produce bioenergy crops at farm level. Applicable indicators were derived through a participatory approach on local level to be implemented in village surveys.


Development and adjustment of sustainability indicators to evaluate outgrower schemes in bioenergy production: The case of Tanzania.

Bioenergy production is rapidly increasing on a global scale, whereby the estimated effects are still under discussion in scientific and political circles. Discussions on potentially negative effects such as soil degradation and unclear land tenure increase the pressure on the production system “intensive monocultures”. Especially in the context of Tanzania, outgrower schemes, which might avoid most of the potentially negative effects, promise to be more sustainable. Therefore, outgrower systems seem to be theoretically favourable and well accepted by producers and decision makers. To assess the actual effects of out grower schemes on local, regional and national scales a group of researcher of ZALF undertakes a stakeholder process to develop a set of sustainability indicators for small scale farming of bioenergy crops.


FS10_Reasons for deforestation and woody biofuel use at regional level

Reasons for pressure on forest resources vary strongly with regions. One can see regional scarcities of wood: Over half of the regions experiencing acute wood fuel scarcity. At the Better-iS workshop held in Bagamoyo 2010 stakeholders were asked which regions are most affected by pressure on forest resources and deforestation and for which reasons.

FS11_Future Expectations of Small-scale Farmers and the Investments in Agroforestry

This paper investigates the scale of small-scale farmers’ tree cultivation in rural Tanzania and the role of future expectations for their investment decisions. Three questions are addressed: (1) Which factors determine the intensity of tree cultivation (trees per acre)? (2) Does the rate of time preference play a significant role? (3) Which factors determine the rate of time preferences? The analysis is based on cross-sectional data of 314 households from Tanzania. The results showed significant that the intention to generate firewood being the most vital factors for using agroforestry in Tandai. In addition, farmers with higher future expectations were found to cultivate significantly more trees although of lower significance. The rate of time preference is positively driven by the child-parent ratio, male headed households and young farmers.


FS12_Relevance of Sustainable Agroforestry for Smallholders

This paper investigates the socio-economic relevance of sustainability of agroforestry for smallholders using the example of firewood exploitation in rural Tanzania. The results of the logistic regression show that land property rights and environmental awareness increase the sustainable harvest of agroforestry products. Empirical evidence from a quantile regression indicates that the poor increase environmental degradation causing a ‘downward spiral’ of the poverty-environment trap resulting in income losses in the long run. A threshold of 524 Tanzanian Shilling (TSh) per capita income and day is suggested from where households can manage their tree stocks sustainably. This threshold is slightly below the poverty line of 617 TSh.


Background_Better-iS Master thesis_Environmental Long-term Farm Investments of Smallholders in the Agroforestry Sector in Tanzania

The influencing factors on the decision of the smallholders of Tandai whether to apply agroforestry were determined out of a large number of possibly influencing factors. These factors were derived either by theoretical considerations or by drawing on the results of previous empirical studies. Since every site has its own particularities not all possibly influencing factors showed an impact on the application of agroforestry in the end. An empirical analysis resulted in the intention to alleviate yield losses and the intention to generate firewood being the most vital factors for using agroforestry in Tandai.


FS13_Charcoal production and consumption

High amount of wood fuel conversion to charcoal is based on inefficient charcoal production. However, charcoal is the preferred wood fuel due to user friendliness, easy access and compared to firewood its higher energy content (and thus lower weight). At present charcoal production is inefficient but has large short term efficiency potentials.

Value chains

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FS14_The value chain approach

The Wuppertal Institute conducted an analysis of the the status quo and trends of biomass production and consumption patterns in Tanzania at national and regional level with special emphasis on the case-study regions. The value chain approach is an important tool to evaluate the production and consumption patterns, showing important causal links between human activity and environmental change.

FS15_Biofuel value chain potential for smallholders

It is important to look at the implications of the different options for rural smallholders and the local population in general. If biofuel value chains are to contribute to rural development and poverty alleviation, there must be opportunities for the rural population to partake in these value chains.

FS16_Lessons for Tanzania\'s agribusiness sector and prospects for bioenergy products

Tanzania\'s potential to support a vibrant bioenergy sector depends on its ability to overcome certain key constraints in the value chain for food, feed and other products. The experiences in the failure of jatropha in other countries are instructive for how Tanzania should approach its agribusiness strategy


FS17_Revising the Potential of Certified Jatropha Oil Production in Tanzania: An Economic Land Evaluation Assessment

IUW and ZALF conducted an economic land evaluation to assess the potential of large-scale Jatropha oil production in Tanzania. The potential was analyzed against different certification schemes. Our findings indicate that production may be able to meet international sustainability standards. Yet, costs are still too high for both domestic consumption and (certified) exports.


Background_Segerstedt at al. 2010_Potential of Sustainable Jatropha Oil Production in Tanzania. An Economic Land Evaluation Assessment

With regard to exports, production costs of Jatropha oil are too high to be able to compete with other vegetable oils on the global market. Hence, even though the cost increase of certification of ca 9 percent may be considered comparatively low, neither export nor certification seems very attractive. On the other hand, many of the sustainability criteria are already met, which would indicate that a formal certification process may not be necessary to make the Jatropha production sustainable. Even so, environmental sustainability is strongly related to site-specific factors. Accordingly, for large-scale projects stricter enforcement of environmental impact assessments should be in focus of national biofuel policies. Further, attention should also be paid to compliance with laws related to social standards (minimum wages, health protection etc).


Biofuel crops

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FS18_Tanzania\'s market potential for oil crops: Looking beyond jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock

Tanzania\'s best market potential for bioenergy feedstocks might be oil crops, whose demand is expected to increase steadily , both at a global and regional level. Both palm oil and sunflower have potential in Tanzania and are under-exploited. The advantage of these crops over jatropha is their edibility and ability to produce valuable by products for livestock feed.


FS19_ZALF Better-iS Master thesis result: Retail options in the value chain of sunflower in Laela

In Laela, 75 % of the sunflower seeds are traded by retailers. The other 25 % are processed in oil which is locally consumed. The gain obtained from oil is higher when value is added by producing it outside the harvesting season rather than during the harvesting period. Retailers could potentially earn more than TZS 650 per kg of seeds. On the other hand, farmers who sell their harvest during the harvest sell it at a loss because the total agricultural production costs of seeds are higher than its price.


FS20_ZALF Better-iS Master thesis result: Value chain of sunflower oil used as diesel substitute for a Multifunctional Platform in Laela.

A Multifunctional Platform has been installed in Laela. Locally produced sunflower oil could potentially be used as a diesel substitute. Production costs of oil are quite stable throughout the year (about TZS 1.000 per litre). Each year, three quarters of the yearly sunflower harvest would be required for powering the MFP, and in this way, for providing electricity to 200 households.


FS21_ZALF Better-iS Master thesis result: A Multifunctional Platform (MFP) in the village of Laela, Rukwa Region, Tanzania, using sunflower oil as diesel substitute. An economic analysis of centralisedprocessing of sunflower seeds after harvesting

Only 14.3 % of the rural population in Sub-Saharan Africa have access to electricity. They use therefore traditional or low tech energy sources, such as firewood and charcoal although such forms of energy are associated with a variety of health and social problems. Electrification through biofuels, if cultivated locally and sustainably, can provide electricity at lower up-front and running costs. Additionally, income for small farmers would be generated if the required oilseeds are produced on a small share of the available agricultural land. Biofuels have a broad field of application and can for example be used as domestic fuel for cooking or lighting or for the use in a diesel engine to produce electricity. The Multifunctional Platform (MFP) is a low-cost technology to provide rural energy services potentially through the use of locally produced biofuels.


Internal Master programme at SUA

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FS22_Ntabaye, Prisca Patrick (2012): Water consumption by Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus saligna and local people’s perceptions in Mpanda district, Tanzania. Master thesis, SUA, Morogoro.

A comparative analysis of water consumption of Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus saligna as well as perceptions of local population towards these crops was realised. It was revealed that there is no difference in water consumption between M. oleifera and J. curcas while water consumption by E. saligna was significantly lower.


FS23_Karwani, George Mbyazita (2012): The role of short rotation coppice technology in fuelwood supply in Rungwe district, Tanzania. Master thesis, SUA, Morogoro.

Short rotation coppice is assessed in terms of the extent of its adaptation and following influence on household energy supply. Adaptation status is nearly 97.5 % and meanwhile nearly 73 % of fuelwood is produced in SRCs - the government should support this technique (e.g. by extentionists).


FS24_Mahoo, Pendo-Edna (2011): Market efficiency analysis of Jatropha value chain: Case study of Monduli and Arumeru districts. Master thesis, SUA, Morogoro.

This study was undertaken to assess the market efficiency of Jatropha value chain by assessing the Jatropha market channels, pricing efficiency, profitability and price transmissions. The data were collected from a sample of 130 Jatropha market chain actors who were randomly selected from Monduli and Arumeru Districts using a structured questionnaire. Concentration indices were estimated to assess the market power. Market margin was used to estimate the differences between the selling and buying prices while gross margin was estimated to assess the income earned per each value chain actor.


Data collection - documents and strategies

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FS25_Household survey data collection in rural Tanzania

IUW conducted together with ZALF and International Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) a representative household survey in Tandai village located in the Morogoro region inTanzania. The objective was to identifiy local energy value chains and to assess the impacts of energy production on rural households. Special emphasis was put on wood and potential bioenergy value chains and related to this, the performance of private agroforestry and the scale of Jatropha curcas cultivation among farmers within the village. Since Jatropha trees are also used as host plants to produce black pepper and vanilla, the village is well suited to analyse the potential for upgrading the spice value chain for Jatropha oil production.


FS26_Official data collection for research purposes in Tanzania – a field report

As member of the Better-iS consortium, ICRAF Tanzania was, apart from other activities, responsible for collection, organisation and distribution of specific data from national and regional authorities in Tanzania to the other partners, namely the Wuppertal Institute. Problems occuring especially in the context of data collection included mainly functional and organisational challenges from official side. The national bureau of statistics does only function to certain limits as gatekeeper – a substantial segment of data can only be collected from the official agencies (mainly ministries) directly. Face to face communication or, if not possible, phone calls should be used to follow-up. Email enquiries were prooven as not being adequate in this context.


FS27_Data collection in the field: Experiences and recommendations

The Centre (ICRAF) planned and realised in close cooperation with ZALF and IUW four household surveys in Tanzania. Survey sites were located in the regions of Morogoro, Rukwa and Kigoma. Although many of the expected challenges as well as their solutions were explicitly site specific at different villages general lessons learned from the data collection process will be outlined in this factsheet. It can be summarized that it is always important to have a “Plan A” as well as “Plan B” and even a “Plan C” in order to react adequately to changing site conditions.



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FS28_Organisation and realisation of international Better-iS conferences

Summary: ICRAF and ZALF conducted within the Better-iS project two international conferences to bring together researchers, policy makers, business as well as civil society representatives. Furthermore did the events allow an in-depth discussion of the preliminary as well as final project outcomes. The factsheet is also designed as guide to prepare other practicioners as well as researchers for potential stepstones when organising such an event.


FS29_Better-iS Workshops at the 9th and the 10th IFSA Symposium. Titles of WS: “Sustainable bioenergy in developing countries: “Green” energy as key for development?” in Vienna (2010) and “Merging the unmergable?!? Pathways towards a sustainable co-production of food and bioenergy (in developing countries)” in Aarhus (2012).

The International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) is aiming at the promotion of systems thinking and systems approach to agricultural development research from a variety of different disciplines. The international section is flanked by regional sub-organisations such as the IFSA – Europe Group. Bioenergy and biofuel research, as being more than other agricultural research areas part of systemic and interdisciplinary approaches, is fitting well into the research approaches highlighted by this informal organistion. ZALF and members of the Better-iS team therefore organised and realised two bioenergy related events in the IFSA workshops 2010 in Vienna, Austria and 2012 in Aarhus, Denmark to bring together researchers from other areas to discuss and learn from each other.


FS30_“Bioenergy in developing countries: Concepts and case studies from ongoing research projects”. PhD Workshop for young researchers working on bioenergy in developing countries facilitated by Better-iS

Creating networks and learning from each others experiences is essential for young researchers, especially in the context of on-the ground research in developing countries. This is even more important for bioenergy research as the challenges in such a new field are numerous. Therefore, Better-iS PhD students organised a joint international PhD workshop for creating a platform to exchange knowledge and experiences in an open and non-competitive atmosphere. The workshop was titled “Bioenergy in developing countries: Concepts and case studies from ongoing research projects” and took place at Humboldt University, Berlin on the 1st and 2nd of august 2011. In total 25 researchers joined this event, including two Key note speakers (GIZ and Forum Environment and Development representatives), an external Better-iS team member from Wuppertal Institute as well as two senior researchers from ZALF.


FS31_Starting Better-iS: Web and literature based data collection about ongoing biofuel projects in Tanzania

ZALF conducted a detailed web- and literature based scoping study to gather data from planned or implemented bioenergy projects in Tanzania. As outcome, approximately 50 different projects could be identified which were (theoretically) operating in the biofuel sector.


SWOT analyses

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FS32_SWOT analysis of liquid biofuels

The SWOT analysis for liquid biofuels from jatropha, palm oil and sugar cane considers the goals of rural development, poverty alleviation and to provide sustainable energy to the rural poor. Concerns that limit the social, environmental and economic sustainability of biofuels are e.g. smallholder involvement, limiting land access for the local population, and food security in developing countries.

FS33_SWOT analysis on bioenergy from agricultural residues

The SWOT analysis on bioenergy from agricultural residues considers the goals of rural development, poverty alleviation and to provide sustainable energy to the rural poor. Concerns that limit the social, environmental and economic sustainability of biofuels are e.g. smallholder involvement, limiting land access for the local population, and food security in developing countries.

Better-iS project documents

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FS34_Wuppertal final report

The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy analysed data on energy and biomass production and consumption patterns in sub-Saharan case study regions including analysis and assessment of trade balance (import, export) and competing biomass uses (food, material, energy), in order to identify relevant trends. The trend analysis of current biomass and land use patterns and analysis of the potential of efficiency i.e. in traditional fuel wood use in the light of expectations on future timber demand in Tanzania aims at an improved decision-making base in the development of strategies and policies for sustainable production and use of biomass. To increase resource efficiency, biomass cascading is one option explored in the project.


FS35_IFPRI technical report

A brief project report about a) a detailed country multi-market model for Tanzania that drew from some key components of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and b) the effect of alternative policies and scenarios on Tanzania’s agricultural growth and biofuel potential to assist further analytical work in this area.


FS36_Ongoing biofuel activities in Tanzania in 2009

A sound literature review based on 17 different documents and homepages To identify those projects and activities on the ground. Resulting data to be distributed among the Better-iS partners in Tanzania. Excel sheet matrix of analysis of ongoing biofuel projects


1.37 Report of Better-iS international conference

International Conference on “Food Security in the light of climate change and Bioenergy” Tanzania challenges for policy-science interfaces in a nutshell. Venue: Livingstone Beach Resort, Bagamoyo, Tanzania 5 - 7th December 2011


FS38_Questionaire used for household surveys in rural Tanzania (Tandai)

To collect data e.g. on energy production and consumption, data on income generation, expenditures, households’ problems with environmental degradation and their time preferences.


FS40_Hoffmann et al. 2012: Sunflower for horsepower – potentials of locally embedded biofuel production and consumption in Laela, Western Tanzania.

Backround paper for factsheets FS19, FS20 an FS21: Harry Hoffmann, Götz Uckert, Jan Rordorf, Stefan Sieber The complex issue of biofuel production has, on a global scale, increasingly become politically contested especially due to the debates about \"food versus fuel\" and \"land grabbing\". Thereby are the vast majority of produced biofuels used for transportation purposes in industrialised and/or BRIC countries. In parts of rural Africa, another option for biofuel consumption might offer potentials to overcome the political stumbling blocks by simultaneously triggering rural development: Biofuel based ecentralised electrification. Ideally, the biofuel value chain is in this concept completely locally embedded, leaving the surplus mainly with the small-scale farmers. In the village of Laela A in Western Tanzania, sunflower oil might hold the potential to serve as sustainable source for electrification. Currently, fossil fuels are imported at high prices to this remote village to power mirco-generators. At the same time, sunflower yields are sold in the harvesting season for marginal surpluses to traders and middlemen - those are the ones who profit most. The utilization of those locally produced vegetable oils for a centralised electricity generator might combine higher prices for local farmers (as transportation costs become obsolete) with a minimisation of energetic losses as only one combustion engine is used. Although Tanzania is, as a nation, a net vegetable oil importer, the overall situation is more complex on the local scale. Therefore, one major question to discuss with the workshop participants is the interrelation between national food security issues and options which do favour the small-scale producers most.


Opportunities for sustainable rural energy supply through renewable energies in developing countries. Jan Rordorf

This Master thesis examines whether it is feasible from an economic, social, and ecological point of view to run a village electricity system in rural Tanzania on locally produced straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a substitute for fossil diesel. It is assessed whether the cultivation and processing of SVO in the village benefits the majority of the villagers from a socio-economic perspective and contributes to rural development. Finally, ecological impacts of the establishment of a local biofuel value-chain are evaluated. Based on this, proposals for the establishment of a local value-chain for biofuels are developed taking into account the needs of the local population.



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